My analysis is derived from available Faribairn Publications that mostly were republished in the last 10 years. Whether they went censorship or rewriting of historical facts, I have not control of.
Published articles about Hand to Hand Fighting could be done by writers that have broad understanding in the topic, or minimal understanding and at time they could unintentionally or intentionally revise history or misinterpret it.
Remember that Hollywood was finding actors that look alike Wild West Characters and created fiction movies. Some foreign writers that never had a clue about the reality of the Wild West have produced literary masterpieces as well.
Today technically, any good video studio could recreate history with copied martial arts techniques. So my advice to you is to understand at least one hundred percent of what you are viewing and the least you could do is test it logically and see if it makes sense in the internal cross logic of it.
Various commercial interests including nationalistic pride is very evident in sports and martial arts pride, as well as the fact that logically Self Defense was always an interest to humans all around the world.
Communications interaction and integration have spread knowledge and at the same time knowledge was kept from reaching unwanted hands.
But at the end it all looks like a competition of total seduction and a competition of total satisfaction and various combinations of the above that lead to the marketability of any knowledge.
I must say however, that after reading some of the articles and noting some good basic principles I am truly shocked that I did not find much of Fairbairn Principles in most Military Hand to Hand Manuals considering that a military's obligation is to research and develop the best training manuals and methods to their soldiers and also somewhat puzzled and skeptical.
My comparison to Krav Maga, are based on my role as the Third Israeli Defense Forces Krav Maga Chief Instructor, and personally knowing Imrich Lichtenfeld and Eli Avikzar his successor in the IDF, of which I replaced when he retired in the IDF.
My advice to all of those that adopted the name Krav Maga and never bothered to receive authentic instruction whether from lack of will or lack of good sources, is to read Fairbairns books and realize that whatever they call Krav Maga is a complete joke comparing to some good basic principles he presents and how their training lacks them.
In addition, if any of the Japanese and Chinese Western martial arts instructors that tried to develop some sort of Civilian Self Defense Program or Military Hand to Hand Combat since the 1900 would have read Fairbairn's books and had some capacity to understand them they would might just overcome the way they were programmed in monotonous traditional execution of techniques and learned habits, and their self defense programs would have looked much different than they do now.
In addition their so called Military and Special Forces Hand to Hand Combat Instructors would have been more professional and respectable than what they really are.
The problem is that Fitness and sports do not always go hand in hand with reading books and research. In addition, limited pictures of techniques in books with some good advice at times did not intend to reveal the exact way to execute the technique or apply a principle.
The reasons were part for lack of knowledge and part intentional or unintentional slack. If you search on You tube I am sure you will find videos of someone holding Fairbairn's book trying to show you how to execute a kick etc.
But failure to present and include all aspects and possibilities during the reaction time do not give the writer and reader a complete understanding of the process which is required for confident mastery of the skills and ability to defend oneself.
Fairbairn was a western Instructor that learned Jujitsu, and Chinese Boxing (perhaps Baguazhan)and Instructed and created fighting manuals for Military, Police and Civilians in the English language years before Krav Maga was formed.
He served in the British Royal Marines in the 1900 Joined the Shanghai Municipal Police few years later, and after studying Jujitsu and Baguazhan and Kodokan Judo he started to write training manuals and teach unarmed combat.
During the years 1940 and 1942 he outlined an intensive course to British Commando Forces in hand to Hand fighting.
He attempted to combine the Martial Arts he has learned with street experience he had gained and to create an intensive training courses and training methods for armed forces and civilians.
Many of Fairbairn's techniques are taken from Japanese Jujitsu, and his striking methods relate to which part of the hand to use and what effect it has on the respective pressure point.
Although Fairbairn had got the idea of using real size and weight striking dummies to his special forces soldiers, it is not mentioned anywhere how he was able to control the Knock Down effect of his strikes and Kicks, and it is not mentioned anywhere point regardring the correct sequential execution of striking and the scientific method behind them.
Thus it brings the soldiers back to point one, like any other boxing future champion or just boxing journeymen that keep travel to the gym back and forth for the rest of their active lives.
With the intent to train soldiers rapidly, and qualify many to become champions of a lethal art of Hand to Hand combat, one need to find a method to control the quality and effect of strikes and kicks and find it fast before soldiers move to the next section of training.
Of course, there is the element of continuous attack and naturally an average man might find himself naturally beating his opponent to death, but why take a chance as many students of Martial Arts fail in a street combat, just like Fairbairn as he began his career in the Municipal Police in China.
Fairbairn is viewed as the Western answer to Eastern Martial Arts as he was working on intensive teaching methods for military and crime fighting police forces. In fact he underlined some invaluable principles and emphasis with his experience in Dojo martial arts and Actual Police Crime Fighting.
Some of his methods to control a class of Special Forces battle hungry men amounted to shrewd unfair dominance including Demonstration and persuasion: picking up on large smart asses students and beating them to instill respect.
Unfortunately this is a method coming from many Dojan, where students would be impressed by the strength or shrewdness of their instructor which would compensate for lack of teaching skills.
His Intensive Courses in the 1940’s for British Commando included four sections:
Section One Blows; Strikes were practiced on full size Dummies constructed with realistic size and weight.
Principles mentioned in Fairbairn's literature include the point that effective striking is a function of speed and weight.
However, according to the pictures presented in his books and instruction, the method of application of Baguazhan or boxing techniques do not demonstrate a solid application of this important principle that was applied in Krav Maga.
If you compare his simple release from a front choke hold for example he chose the Jujitsu method that does not work if a realistic choke is being applied. Also, it appears that many of the techniques he is photographed are selected from Jujitsu.
While it looks like his military course favored striking of pressure points over restraining techniques and breaking or staying on the ground too long, it looks like his ground techniques resorted often to making his opponent fall and stay on the ground rather than emphasizing the need to strike a vital pressure point.
Again, it could be the combination of apprehending a criminal and fighting for his life that made the difference in his Civilian and Police book and Military Curriculum.
However since civilians and police could face the same dangers and a military soldier that is placed in hand to hand fighting scenario, it should not really make a difference. All options should be learned including the use of judgement.
The problem with the Dojo system is that over the years generations of Instructors have tried to apply one technique to various scenarios without considering the unique tactical options and reaction present to each scenario.
This present a problem with any Hand to Hand system that is not truly complete. Many Instructors realize a missing link and try to fill the gap with whatever they learned without always taking the time to analyse if, test it, and draw a conclusion.
Favorite striking method: frontal knife hand strike called palm hand since it was done with the edge of the palm bone continuing from the little finger.
During the courses he demonstrated the exact way to crush a man’s testicles.
Preferred Pressure Points taught were: Back of the neck From the Bridge of the nose to the base of the throat, on either side of the head or throat: from the base of the throat to the temple area Upper Arm,Top of the Forearm, and Kidney Region.
Advice was given that blows to these area can kill break bones paralyze and injure the opponent.
It appears that the pressure points documented were not specific enough to realistically persuade men what exactly are the effect of a blow to each area, however, at that time this is what they came up with.
Section 2 Kicks, Open hand chin jabs elbows and knees
Recruits were advised that they should never bring their opponent to the ground as it was dangerous to have his friends attack the defender while on the ground.
The concept of attacking first and continuous attack was presented and students were told that if they attack first and continue to attack they will prevail even against highly trained opponents.
Section three consisted of Release from Holds including Release from hand Holds, Throat Holds, Front Body Holds, Rear Body Holds Hair Holds, Police and Prisoner Leading Holds.
To conclude it was stressed that speed was the essence of successful release and immediate counter attack.
Section Four consisted of Crowd Fighting Drills in the boxing ring with 6 full body dummies being attacked by student on command with palm strike kick and elbow and head randomly and immediate exit of the ring after the attack as it was stressed to always leave the place and not to fight any longer than necessary.
Section Five was dedicated to Knife Fighting I would like to mention that it is merely a nice coincidence that chapter five of my book Krav Maga – Use of the Human Body; Philosophy and Application of Hand to Hand Fighting Training Method is dedicated to Knife as well.
Not sure if it is Luck, faith, destiny Intuition etc. I never picked up any of Fairbairn's books prior to today. But perhaps was just plain Logic of necessities in a rational order to learn how to use principles of fighting with the Human Body First before adding on a weapon, although for shorter Military Courses it might have been more wise to just teach Knife due to lack of time.
But again, then you would neglect the awareness of the other dangers of fighting in close quarters scenarios.
In Fairbairn's Knife Section he mentions the following:
How to Hold the Knife
How to pass it from one hand to the other hand
How to thrust
How to use the free hand to Feint (An offensive movement resembling an attack in all but its continuance. It is an attack into one line with the intention of switching to another line before the attack is completed.
A feint is intended to draw a reaction from an opponent. This is the intention, and the reaction is generally a parry, which can then be deceived).
I would like to point out that in Krav Maga a decision to feint is one you would normally should avoid, since in Krav Maga you defend and attack according to the distance the opponent stands, so in such a case it would result in defense that would never meet the attack paired with counter attack that will reach the opponent.
The same applies to switching of the knife from one hand to another. If the defender moves forward and attack at the same time, the feint would never materialize.
Fairbairn's Knife Chapter included the teaching of how to parry as well (A simple defensive action designed to deflect an attack, performed with the forte of the blade.
A parry is usually only wide enough to allow the attacker's blade to just miss; any additional motion is wasteful. A well-executed parry should take the foible of the attacker's blade with the forte and/or guard of the defender's.
This provides the greatest control over the opponent's blade. In sabre, the guard should be turned appropriately using the fingers to protect the wrist. Parries generally cover one of the 'lines' of the body.
The simplest parries move the blade in a straight line. Other parries move the blade in a circular, semicircular, or diagonal manner. There are eight basic parries, and many derivatives of these eight).
In addition the correct method of slashing was taught as well, and Knife carry and concealment methods were also learned.
Finally, it was emphasized that the knife is silent and deadly and can be easily concealed and while in the hands of an expert an opponent stands hardly any chance.
Chapter six dealt with Methods of sentry removals with a knife, Method of neck breaking or dislocating of the cervical vertebrae breaking an arm for interrogation purposes, two methods of pistol threat defense were taught from the front and one from the back. Leading a prisoner and searching a prisoner were practiced as well.
In the Israeli Defense Forces(IDF) Krav Maga the aforementioned topics were covered as well. During the 1970's in the IDF there was an in depth curriculum and lesson plans that called for accomplishing the mastery of striking kicking use of a knife, a club, and a rifle as a side arm and them defending vs strikes stabs, slashes, strikes with a blunt object, and a bayonet attack all with bare hands, or using a knife or a sharp or blunt object.
The core curriculum consisted of 21 forty five minute each lesson plans to train soldiers to accomplish the correct method.
Of course, you would need more hours to rehearse the techniques, and to apply the principles in sparring drills. They techniques were mostly different choices.
Imrich's Lichtenfeld was driven by the same need as Fairbairn's ( to train Military and Police Personnel quickly to prevail in unarmed combat and to standardize techniques that are easy to learn quickly or find a training methods that makes it easy to learn fast a complex set of motions) yielded quite different results than Fairbairns.
Immi's experience emanated from competitive winning past in Boxing Wrestling, and Gymnastics and his Jujitsu base of knowledge from his father, a man that also served as a detective in the police force catching career criminals and long term career in the Israeli Defense Forces. Immi realized that you cannot use boxing in a street fight. You only have a split second to deal with each opponent. That lead to the idea of the reaction time or knowing your time limits and therefore Krav Maga training is geared around this concept.
While logic prevailed it was the attempts to rely on past accumulation of fighting experience from martial arts and fighting history, including athletic knowledge that provided advantage and shortcut but sometimes missing of the gist of the principles for everybody that was in that field.
Imrich had broken down the basic principles that could be extracted from Fairbairn's system into greater component, and then it was easier to apply them to other neglected areas of Hand to Hand Combat.
Eli Avikzar continued Imrich's way and even broke the principles further and applied them in more depth. I did the same following Eli Avikzar's insight and genius that matched Imrich's Genius at least in Krav Maga.
Think of it, if you are a great instructor and a genius, then you must pass your genius to your students.
Imrich Lichtenfeld learned Jujitsu from his Father that was a Police Detective in Bratislava. Imrich became a boxing and wrestling and gymnastics champion as well.
He then modified his sports experience to street fighting vs the Nazi youth Groups. He then was forced to serve two years in the British Legions as a precondition to live in the future state of Israel. During his service he was taught the Fairbairn method of hand to hand fighting.
Imrich might have had some of Fairbairn’s principles already in place, the know how to shift the weight and deliver a speedy strike from his boxing career, however Fairbairn might have been the one to credit for these principles since he documented them.
He might have been a mere good observer of life experience and got some good idea from Dojo style methods to street application himself.
Much of common sense for someone that has witnessed street fighting against gangs that you cannot afford to spend too much time fighting with one person, and you do not want to wrestle with him on the ground, and once you delve into dirty fighting trying to kill your opponent, you should be aware that he could do the same.
According to the first Israeli Defense Forces Krav Maga manual where Imrich Lichtenfeld is appearing, the book dealt with the surface of boxing stance, front and side kicks, stomping kick, any possible way to hold a knife and to attack, and how to block a knife attack using a knife or with bare hands. In additions, release from holds and Police Leads and escapes were listed just as in the Fairbairn books, however, the majority of them were different. Some very different and some with improved detail.
Since Krav Maga was deep into the reaction time concept and to the efficiency concept it dealt with choosing the most efficient move using efficient force, and at the same time ensuring it would be possible to execute on time.
Military knots to tie a prisoner, and stick fighting etc were presented as well. While Eli Avikzar that replaced Imrich Lictenfeld obtained a black belt in Aikido and Judo as well, with his original training with Imrich he learned to apply the scientific approach and managed to modify Aikido to handle boxing and kicking in methods that were much more efficient than before both the attacks and defenses.
Since the motion of boxing is much faster as it is done from a natural stance with high center of gravity suitable to humans, the few Aikido counter techniques had to shorten the taesabaki executions to minimum followed with immediate attack.
Call it modification of Aikido, or Judo, or Jujitsu or just call it common sense to tailor working techniques and principles applying real experience of lost past and dangerous future into a training method but at the end you got the Israeli Defense Forces Krav Maga.
While books have been published documenting the work of Fairbairn much earlier than Krav Maga Books were published, and Krav Maga documented was not that clear as the Krav Maga transferred to pupils for a need to preserve some secrecy for various interest.
It appears that Imrich Lichtenfeld and his successor Eli Avikzar have went much further into forming an intensive inclusive training methods to soldiers. No doubt that Fairbairn demonstrate the scientific approach in his publications, or publications that were written in his name demonstrated it.
Formulating and documenting the principles of Hand to Hand fighting had gone much more accurately and precisely in the Israeli Defense forces than it was first introduced with Fairbairn intensive British Military Courses and with his documented publication for civilians as well.
Principles of timing and reaction time were explored on many levels in Israeli Defense Forces Krav Maga, and principles of Prioritization contributed to shortening of the curriculum training time, but yet broadening up of the curriculum to contribute to greater exposure to controlled danger for students.
While Fairbairn has done an honorable work in bringing and documenting Scientific Methods of Fighting to the west, combining trial and error of learned martial arts passed in generations from teachers to students, documenting it for use in police departments and later formulating the British Forces Hand to Hand Intensive Fighting Course, the way Krav Maga was developed in the Israeli Defense Forces, by select few of Israeli Genius was in much more profound.
If you read my book Krav Maga – Use of the Human Body as a Weapon; Philosophy and Application of Hand to Hand Fighting Training Methods, you will find in depth all the ingredients of Hand to Hand Fighting Formulae and the conclusive detailed winning edge advice.
In fact the Israeli Defense Forces Krav Maga had reached a greater level of detail on all levels of the best way to do anything starting from the distilled curriculum, the techniques and their applications and their Training methods.
Watch Pure Krav Maga Video Clips
While it appears that the Fairbairn Publications had gone to a little more detail than the first two Israeli Defense Forces manuals and perhaps were written by Fairbairn himself as opposed to someone writing Imrich's thoughts on paper, the Krav Maga that I know through Eli Avikzar, and various sessions with Imrich Lichtenfeld himself present much more intricate complex details all to be fed methodically over a short period of time in Intensive training.
The complexity was not in a form of adding more techniques but rather in a precise execution and sequential form of motion that makes the difference in efficiency. Of course first techniques were selected and created or modified to answer all tactical possibilities that the Human Body is capable of.
For someone that was a circus acrobat, a Jujitsu, Wrestling Boxing athlete and fell into a position of training soldiers how to prevail, it was easier to look at the whole picture and miss much less. Realizing that a sudden encounter with unknown enemy could take few seconds before one of the fighters life would end, you have to be at least one step ahead.
Tactical capabilities and force strength, resilience of pressure points and programming of a fighter to respond instinctively with a winning edge reaction have to be dug to its maximum.
Then it has to be presented logically and documented and applied successfully. There is really no room for bad habits, or anything that does not make full sense.
Perhaps it is the limitation of a Military Manual and the understanding that whether the Instructor is a scholar or not, the same could be applied to the soldiers or police officers.
But if you look at the history of Fairbairn and Imrich you can say that people like Fairbairn were people with vision, and People like Imrich were people with vision that continued the path, while others were blind followers without having enough understanding of what they are doing and therefore they became lost in their arts.
Military Manuals at those times were would not normally have more than 100 short pages. I have not noticed any instruction for fast motion as preparation for a strike or a kick in Fairbairn's literature. Krav Maga attempts to work on all aspects of motion starting with reaction capacity and the most efficient motion to reach your opponent's pressure points first.
A point of interest was that Fairbairn started with Jujitsu, then learned Chinese Boxing realizing the need to perfect striking after engaging in street fights. After that he obtained a belt in Jigoro Kano Jujitsu which was later called Judo.
Jigoro Kano had established the belt grading system and Morihei Ueshiba the founder of Aikido had followed it as well. Imrich's Lichtenfeld was wearing a black belt when he was teaching in his civilian dojo which he opened after he retired from his post as the first Israeli Defense Forces Hand to Hand Combat(Krav Maga) Chief Instructor.
While never taking any examination in any martial arts, his student Eli Avikzar learned Judo before Imrich allowed him to get a belt in Krav Maga, and there after the Belt System was adopted with Imrich Civilian Krav Maga Association. Jigoro Kano, the founder of Judo excelled in Jujitsu before he turned it into an accredited Japanese sport perfecting the clean throws and extracting the lethal elements out of it.
But his students often prevailed in sports matches with Jujitsu school since they perfected the sports elements of it neglecting the striking of pressure point which were not used in a match anyway. Ueshiba, also coming from Takeda Jujitsu, was well trained in various aspects of Jujitsu, including the use of various weapons. But when he concentrated in the art of motion alone, and adopted the Judo Belt System, he also extracted the lethal element.
Both created an environment for lifetime fitness challenge that included much more than the average local athletic club. It promoted hierarchy of lifetime learning, recognition of achievement far beyond Self Defense.
At the same time people that were well known instructor in Hand to Hand fighting still at times looked to get recognition from prestigious establishment like the Kodokan, since various Chinese and Japanese arts did not provide for such recognition.
You would just start your studies and end them. Years to come and many other Sports Martial Arts and Fighting System adopted the Judo ranking system some with extensive division of the belts and some starting with Student of Instructor level distinctions.
For the average folk and government institutions it was good to have a rank from well known institutes like the Kodokan at the time. It showed somewhat competitive recognition and a good starting point.
But if you look at the history of these Military and Police Hand to Hand Fighting Pioneers, they all have realized at their careers that traditional Jujitsu, Judo, Boxing or Chinese Boxing was not going to be the answer in a brutal street fighting.
Looking at Krav Maga for example can lead you to conclude that an ex Jujitsu master, Boxing Champion, and Wrestling Champion and Gymnastics Champion have extracted Jujitsu, Boxing, Wrestling, and Gymnastics out of his system to create a more effective fighting system.
Perhaps he extracted out the techniques but kept the distilled principles and rebuilt the techniques utilizing a crisscross set of applied principles.
So like many pioneers that had great ideas and methods of applying them, it appears that the Israeli Defense Forces Original Krav Maga developed by the first few instructors was a complete method while Fairbairn's method, having some very basic innovative and precise well put principles, lacked the component of completeness which is not that great for a system of Hand to Hand fighting.
Perhaps Imrich Lichtenfeld had continued where Fairbairn had left. Maybe on few basic Principles and maybe by coincidence. But Imrich had much greater mass of principles under his belt and together with his student Eli Avikzar developed a much more scientific approach detailed system than the Faribairn System.
From short documentary found I cant see great force demonstrated in strikes with the Fairbairn system. I can see many people that try to learn from his books and all give various different interpretations to his strikes and kicks.
Comparing some of the techniques from the book "Scientific Self Defence" by W.E. Fairbairn I had found the following:
The Rolling Dive was a tactical maneuver taught by Fairbairn. It is the almost same tactical maneuver used in Pure Krav Maga(PKM) to close on an attacker swinging a chain, or threatening a group with a machine gun.
Fairbairn suggests bewaring of this tactical maneuver and if you are the one holding the rifle you should leap to the side while the opponent is trying to do this maneuver on you. If you compare the pictures from Fairbairn's book to the way Pure Krav Maga is taught to continue forward from the rollover there is a slight difference. Instead of standing up prior to catching the opponent, you leap forward and stay down when kneeled immediately after the rollover if the attacker is carrying a firearm.
Just common sense of improved efficiency. Many other details dealing with efficiency and reaction time were added and perfected by Imrich Lichtenfeld and his successors in the Israeli Defense Forces.
For example for a rear hand bottom up knife stab Fairbairn is demonstrating a kick to the groin. In reality while possible as a preemptive attack if the attacker is just standing with a knife in his hand, it is very dangerous if he is stabbing because the tip of the blade is very close to the defender's kicking leg.
Therefore Imrich took the idea of preemptive kick but added a change of body positioning and kick to the head area if the blade is coming from around the groin or center body area going to the belly.
If a straight stab however which is not covered by Fairbairn, then a round house kick to the groin under the attacker's hand holding the knife if possible, but if he stabs too low, then evasive motion and a direct kick to the knee from the side(same finishing to the previous one).
For a top down knife stab Fairbairn demonstrated a one hand grab with the palm, but Imi had the aiming of the forearm center instead for a block. While Fairbairn's instructions in his book are to do an armbar, Imrich's defenses consist of immediate simultaneous follow up with counter attack to a pressure point.
It appears like when it comes to Knife, Fairbairn tactics were about preemptive reach for the hand holding the knife, and using an arm bar or preemptive kick.
However, there was no consistency in the method of application, and the opponent ability to continue or do endanger the defender were not well thought of.
On the other hand, Imrich applied his principles more consistently and borrowed some ideas from Faribairn and added others in a more of a consistent way. In areas which were not consistent, few of his IDF students followed up to clean the gap.
As far as Police Holds some are coming from Fairbairn, but some were modified by Eli Avikzar that studied Aikido, but modified it according to Imrich's Principles.
While some of the old school of Jujitsu and Aikido used sword techniques as methods of attack with bare hands, it was realized the the arm has greater capability to attack several times in the short range and retract to evade catching.
So this was taken into consideration when Eli Avikzar modified the Aikido lock techniques to be used in retraining techniques. Defense vs. group from example, while in Fairbairn's method you hit two people at the same time while in PKM you hit three at the same time.
The rollover getting up steps were demonstrated in Fairbairn's book, but there are still flaws in applying Fairbairn’s principles of Break falling, and Imrich corrected them. In addition Imrich Lichtenfeld corrected the break fall to the side method to basically land on the opposite foot and kick with the bottom foot up if needed.
Fairbairn had two Pistol defenses that Imrich used but they were changed a little considering the human reaction factor. I also changed some of them as demand for additional techniques came up for civilian hostage taking.
In the past military officers would pull a pistol and threaten or shoot from the general front and not grab you as a hostage and put a pistol to your head jeopardizing you taking their pistol away from you.
In addition other techniques were developed and applied to approach the attacker from various distances and angles possible keeping in mind maximum efficiency in the constraint of reaction time.
At times new techniques that were not timely and properly tested according to Imrich's principles called for a later change.
If you are a student or an instructor you should learn from someone that has the ability to teach you and read books that you can learn from them as much as you can.
Keep in mind that it is a good idea to be confident in your knowledge of how, when why and how not when not and why not.
Not until you learn all that, can you be certain that your system will probably work all the times or not.
In Summary, nothing wrong in excelling in a sport but self defense should be well rounded skills and not in winning sports competitions, but in awareness through understanding the limits both you and your opponent may have through lecture and training and using them to your favor when you can.
Pure Krav Maga has all the techniques and the Tactics that the other Martial Arts have in their most efficient combination of form and prioritization geared for Self Defense Training under the constraint of reaction time. To be able to completely understand this statement you can read the book Krav Maga - Use Your Body as a Weapon!
If you would like to get an in depth understanding about the selection and training methods of Hand to Hand Fighting, I recommend my book Krav Maga - Use Your Body as a Weapon. I designed it to bridge the gap!References:
The CIA Museum … Artifacts: Fairbairn-Sykes OSS Stiletto
The Art of Silent Killing WW II British Commando Style
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